Global Digest has a section on Environment|Conservation|Endangered Species.
Also, there is a separate page on 'Fracking' - Hydraulic Fracturing.
- General Geoscience Resources for Students and Teachers
- General Dictionary of Geology | PDF File
Edited by : Alva Kurniawan - Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
- U.S. Department of the Interior
- List of environmental agencies in the United States by state | Wikipedia
- USGS: U.S. Geological Survey
- USGS National Geologic Map Database
"We can help you find information about maps and related data for: geology, hazards, earth resources, geophysics, geochemistry, geochronology, paleontology, and marine geology."
- Windows to the Universe
Brought to you by the National Earth Science Teachers Association
- LibreTexts | Geosciences
- Earth Sciences | Awesome Library
- Geography for Kids, The Study of our Earth
An in-depth online geography textbook written for kids.
- The Science Spot: Kid Zone - A Collection of Resources for Students
- National Geographic Kids
- One Geology
OneGeology's aim is to create dynamic digital geological map data for the world and to provide service to other types of geoscience data. OneGeology is an international initiative of the geological surveys of the world.
- One Geology Kids - What is Geology?
See here how geological map data can be transformed to help society more efficiently use our planet's natural resources, how it can be used to predict and mitigate hazards and how understanding geology is critical to our health and our wealth. Links to examples of the best uses of digital geological map data on the web worldwide.
- Rader's Geography4Kids.com | Structure, Biosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Cycles
- Basic Concepts of Geology | Suggested Grade Levels 9-12
- Simple Geology - Earthquakes, Mountains, Volcanoes
- Some Geology Basics | PDF File - by Garry Hayes - Modesto Junior College
- Systems Geology - British Geological Survey
- TEXT: Principles of Geology | PDF File - 11+megs - University of Leeds
- Structural Geology Introduction/Review of Basic Principles | Western Oregon University
- An Introduction to Structural Geology | PDF File - 15+megs - University of Sydney School of Geosciences
- Geologist | Wikipedia
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that shaped it.
- Careers in Geology | George Washington University
- GeologyLink - Cengage Learning - Online Study Center
Houghton Mifflin - the publisher of Geology and Essentials of Geology - is pleased to present a public forum for all matters geological. This area is open to students, university instructors, professional geologists, and anyone else who seeks insight into the world's daily geological rumblings.
- Inside Geology
"Want to learn more about basic concepts in geology? Curious about a recent geologic event? Interested in studying a subject in depth? The following chapters will link you to numerous topical class lectures, Web sites, references, news items, organizations, and glossaries."
- SERC: The Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College
GeoScienceWorld (GSW) is a nonprofit collaborative and comprehensive Internet resource for research and communications in the earth sciences, which is built on a core database of peer-reviewed journals and is integrated with the GeoRef index.
- HistoryWorld - History and Timelines
- History of Geology | Professor James S. Aber, Earth Science Department, Emporia State College
- The Worldwide Museum of Natural History
- Charles Lyell
- Darwin, Then and Now
- Principles of Geology
Often called the most important scientific book ever, Charles Lyell‘s Principles of Geology published in three volumes from 1830-33, shook prevailing views of how Earth had been formed.
- Uniformitarianism: Charles Lyell | Evolution - Berkeley
- Science Channel: Space, Technology, Engineering, Earth Science | Videos
- 100 Greatest Discoveries | infocobuild
- 100 Greatest Discoveries - Earth Sciences | Documentaries - Cosmolearning
- How The Earth Was Made | Season One - Full Episodes | OV Guide
- "Secrets of the Earth" | by The Weather Channel | 34 Videos - YouTube
Secrets of the Earth" explores our planet with the same sense of awe and wonder normally reserved for alien worlds. Computer graphics, visual analogies and a recurring cast of expert scientists combine to reveal new aspects of the world you think you know, from canyons of gravity that warp space and time to rain triggered by cosmic rays.
- Sciences | The Video Project
Our mission is to distribute the very best in educational media and documentary programming on critical environmental, global and social issues to the widest possible audience worldwide, including colleges, schools, libraries, businesses, religious groups, government agencies and non-governmental organizations.
- DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals
Free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals, covering all subjects and many languages.
- NOVA - Australia: First Four Billion Years | Video
Australia's ancient landscape holds clues to Earth's early history and the beginning of life. Aired April 10, 2013 on PBS. This is the first episode of a four-part series.
- Geology.com: News and Information for Geology & Earth Science
- American Geophysical Union
Over 90 Years of Quality Research in the Geosciences
- Geological Society of America
The Geological Society of America is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of the science of geology.
The journal Geology publishes timely, innovative, and provocative articles relevant to its international audience, representing research from all fields of the geosciences.
- Education & Careers
- IUGS: International Union of Geological Sciences
The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is one of the largest and most active non-governmental scientific organizations in the world.
- IUGG: International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
Contributed papers cover all areas of geophysics--ocean sciences, meteorology and atmospheric sciences, hydrological sciences, geodesy, seismology, volcanology, physics and chemistry of the Earth's interior, geomagnetism, and aeronomy.
- USGS: Science Explorer Overview
- Origin of Moon
- Lunar and Planetary Institute
The Lunar and Planetary Institute, a division of the Universities Space Research Association, was established during the Apollo missions to foster international collaboration and to serve as a repository for information gathered during the early years of the space program.
- Giant-impact hypothesis | Wikipedia
The giant impact hypothesis states that the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from a collision between the Earth and a body the size of Mars, approximately 4.5 Gya (four and a half billion years ago).
- Earth | BBC
- Planetary Science Institute
- Courtney Seligman, Professor of Astronomy
- Space and NASA News - Universe and Deep Space Information
- If We Had No Moon | Top Documentary Films | VIDEO - 51 minutes
- Geology of Mars
- Exploring the Planets | 2nd Edition
By Eric H. Christiansen and W. Kenneth Hamblin
- Geology of Mars |
Albert T. Hsui, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Here you can learn about the six geological processes that are either currently operating on Mars or have operated during Martian history.
- Geology of Mars | Wikipedia
- Earth Life From Mars?
- It's a microbial world | Jane Qiu, 18, April, 2010 - Nature News
- Ecological Sanitation | The Water Page
- Pond Life Identification Kit
A simple guide to small and microscopic pond life
- The Virus that Binds: A Novel Idea Marries Biology and Mining | July 28, 2009 - Science Daily
"The physical and chemical changes caused by phage may be the basis for a highly selective method of mineral separation with better recovery. Another possible application is bioremediation, where metals are removed from contaminated water" says Dunbar.
- Award-Winning Photos Bring the Microscopic World to Life | October 14, 2015 - Discover Magazine
- NOAA Home
- Microbial Life | Educational Resources
Teaching and learning about the diversity, ecology and evolution of the microbial world; discover the connections between microbial life, the history of the earth and our dependence on micro-organisms.
- Extremophiles | Microbiology: The Beginning
- NOVA | The Lives of Extremophiles
- Atacama Desert's "Extreme Microbial Oasis" - A Preview of Future Mars Discoveries? | The Daily Galaxy
- Open Questions
"A place for everyone to explore on the frontiers of science."
Crystals || Radiometric Dating
- IMA: International Mineralogical Association
- Mineral | The Free Dictionary
- Mineralogy | Encyclopedia Britannica
- Mineralogy | New World Encyclopedia
- Mineral List | LithoCat |
Mineral - Formula - Crystal System
- Physical Properties of Minerals | Tulane University
- Complete Information Guide to Rocks, Minerals, and Gemstones | Minerals.net
- Mineralogy | Prof. Stephen A. Nelson - Tulane University
- A Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals | By Frederick H. Pough
- GeoScienceWorld | Includes E-book Collections
GeoScienceWorld eBook Collections provides 1,100 eBooks from leading global societies publishing in the Earth Sciences with full chapter downloads and a mobile device friendly eBook reader.
- Some Fundamentals of Mineralogy and Geochemistry
By L. Bruce Railsback, Department of Geology, University of Georgia
- Mineralogical Society of America
- Mineralogy 4 Kids | Mineralogical Society of America
- The Basics of Rocks and Minerals and Polar Geology | OSU
- Mineralogy Database -- Mineral Collecting, Localities,... | Mindat.org
"Mindat.org is the largest mineral database and mineralogy reference website on the internet. This site contains worldwide data on minerals, mineral collecting, mineral localities and other mineralogical information."
- Handbook of Mineralogy
The Handbook of Mineralogy series is a Five Volume set authored by John W. Anthony, Richard A. Bideaux, Kenneth W. Bladh, and Monte C. Nichols, and published by Mineral Data Publishing. Each mineral known at the time of publication occupies one page of the handbook.
- Mineralogy Database
It contains 4,714 individual mineral species descriptions with links and a comprehensive image library.
- College of Natural Resources | University of California, Berkeley
- Smithsonian Gem Gallery
- Gemstone Crystal Systems Chart | Wikigempedia
- Radiometric Dating
There is an additional section on Ocean/Marine Life on the Science/Biology page.
- Ocean Conservation Society
- MarineBio Conservation Society
- Marine Biology Web - An Educational Resource | by Jeffrey Levinton
- Oceana North America
Oceana, founded in 2001, is the largest international organization focused solely on ocean conservation.
- CoML: Census of Marine Life
The Census of Marine Life is a growing global network of researchers in more than 45 nations engaged in a ten-year initiative to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life in the oceans -- past, present, and future.
- OBIS: Ocean Biogeographic Information System
OBIS is an evolving strategic alliance of people and organizations sharing a vision to make marine biogeographic data, from all over the world, freely available over the World Wide Web.
- "Drain the Ocean" | Watch Free Documentary Online | Top Documentary Films - 90 minutes
Digital ocean mapping and CGI technology vividly illustrate the mountains, plains, canyons and creatures of the deep as never seen before, revealing a world of almost unimaginable scale right here on Earth.
- "Science of the Deep" VIDEOS
- Introduction to Physical Oceanography | PDF File - 13MB
By Robert H. Stewart - Department of Oceanography - Texas A&M University
- Introduction to Physical Oceanography | The Online Books Page
- The Oceanography Society
The Oceanography Society (TOS) was founded in 1988 to disseminate knowledge of oceanography and its application through research and education, to promote communication among oceanographers, and to provide a constituency for consensus-building across all the disciplines of the field.
- The Ocean Drilling Program
- NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
- Oceanography | NASA
- Oceanography | Wikipedia
- Science Daily: Oceanography News
- The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt
Performing a GOOGLE IMAGE search on great ocean conveyor belt
will return countless images, each of which is associated with a webpage or site.
- Measuring Waves
- Plate Tectonics
- This Dynamic Earth: Contents - The story of plate tectonics | Plate Tectonics | USGS
→ Click image to the right for larger version ... →
- The Paleomap Project | Christopher R. Scotese
The goal of the PALEOMAP Project is to illustrate the plate tectonic development of the ocean basins and continents, as well as the changing distribution of land and sea during the past 1100 million years.
- YouTube Videos
- Plate Tectonics - Archived List of URLs
- A Science Odyssey: Intro to Plate Tectonics Theory | PBS
- Professor Smart's Web Pages | Department of Geology and Meteorology - Kean University
- The Theory of Plate Tectonics | Geoscience - University of Wisconsin-Madison
- Ocean In The Earth System | PDF File - 9.5megs - American Meteorological Society
- Water: Science & Issues | Water Encyclopedia
- Ocean & coasts education resources | NOAA
- Marine Biology, Ocean Life Conservation, Sea Creatures, Biodiversity
- The Dangerous Earth| Vicki Harder | An introduction to geologic hazards
- Geodynamics | Wikipedia
- Sonia's Lessons
- Hydrothermal Vent Communities
This webpage will familiarize students with a hydrothermal vent habitat. Students will learn where vents are likely to form, how they form, and how physical conditions contribute to the development of a living vent community and to its eventual demise.
- Search Results for: Deep Sea Volcanoes and Vents | American Museum of Natural History
- Triassic period
During the Triassic, almost all the Earth's land mass was concentrated into a single supercontinent centered more or less on the equator and spanning from pole to pole, called Pangaea ("all the land").
- Pangaea | All About the Supercontinent Pangaea | by Amanda Briney - June 28, 2017
- Supercontinent Pangaea Pushed, Not Sucked, Into Place | National Geographic News
- Pangaea | VIDEO/AUDIO - Encyclopedia Britannica
- Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program
- How Volcanoes Work | SDSU: San Diego State University - Department of Geological Sciences
- Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
- Introduction to Volcanology - Volcanoes and Volcanism | Interactive slideshow presentation
- Krakatoa: The Last Days | Watch Free Documentary Online - 1 hour, 27 minutes
Krakatoa: The Last Days (also titled Krakatoa: Volcano of Destruction) is a BBC Television docudrama.
- Unravelling Krakatoa's secrets | by Professor Nick Petford - BBC News | Science/Nature
- Earth Science | Extreme Science
Welcome to the Earth Science portal on Extreme Science! This is the place to find information on world records in earth science and geological formations and to also read about key science concepts in the earth sciences, such as plate tectonics and seismology.
- Volcano World | Your World is Erupting | Oregon State University
- IRIS: The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
IRIS is a consortium of over 120 US universities dedicated to the operation of science facilities for the acquisition, management, and distribution of seismological data. Membership comprises virtually all US universities with research programs in seismology, and includes a growing number of Educational Affiliates, US Affiliates, and Foreign Affiliates.
- The Nevada Seismological Laboratory
The Nevada Seismological Labratory at the University of Nevada, Reno investigates earthquakes and their effects in Nevada and eastern California.
- Northern California Earthquake Data Center Home Page
- NEWSGROUP: sci.geo.earthquakes
Your News Server must list this newsgroup in order to access it.
- USGS Earthquake Hazards Program
Try performing a search on "earthquake."
- Introduction to Self-Organized Criticality & Earthquakes
By Nathan Wilson, Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan
- Dr. Harmon D. Maher Jr., Department of Geography and Geology, University of Nebraska at Omaha
- Basic Intro to Projections, Coordinate Systems | Vermont Center for Geographic Information
Adapted from: Peter H. Dana, The Geographer's Craft Project
- Earthquake Articles, Information, News, and Facts | Geology.com
- Table of Geological Periods | Infoplease
- Earth Science Concepts: What is Geologic Time?
U.S. Geological Survey - National Park Service - Department of the Interior
- The Ages of the Earth
- How Old is the Earth? | ExtremeScience
- Timeline of evolutionary history of life | Wikipedia
- Evolution of Life | University of Waikato
- Palaeos: Life Through Deep Time
- Photos of the World's Oldest Living Things | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine - January, 2013
Among the organisms documented by photographer Rachel Sussman are 80,000-year-old aspen trees and 600,000-year-old bacteria.
- Primordial Fossils of Earth's 1st Trees Reveal Their Bizarre Structure | October 23, 2017 - LiveScience
Earth's first trees had hundreds of tree-like structures within them, making them exceedingly more intricate than the insides of modern trees, a new study finds.
- NOAA Home
- NASA Home
- Prehistoric World, Prehistoric Time, Photos, Videos, Maps, Facts | National Geographic
- Fossil Mall Fossils for Sale
- The Virtual Fossil Museum: Fossils Across Geological Time and Evolution
- Paleontology Portal
- UCMP: University of California Museum of Paleontology
- History of Life on Earth | Nature - Prehistoric life - BBC
- Earth Science Picture of the Day
- American Museum of Natural History
- Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History
- University of California Museum of Paleontology
This is the beginning page for Berkeley's Natural History Museum tour.
- Natural History Museum -- London
- The Paleofiles | University of Bristol
- The Cambrian Explosion - The Big Bang of Biology
- The Evolution of Life on Earth | Stephen J. Gould
"The history of life is not necessarily progressive; it is certainly not predictable. The earth's creatures have evolved through a series of contingent and fortuitous events."
- The Cambrian Explosion | Wikipedia
- Origins - Cambrian Evolutionary Fauna | The Scarlet Pensive
- The Cambrian Explosion | Understanding Evolution - Berkeley
- The Cambrian Period | UCMP
- The Cambrian Explosion | The Burgess Shale
- What sparked the Cambrian explosion? | February 16, 2016 by Douglas Fox - Nature
An evolutionary burst 540 million years ago filled the seas with an astonishing diversity of animals. The trigger behind that revolution is finally coming into focus.
- Lightning-Fast Evolution Clocked During Cambrian Explosion | September 12, 2013 by Tia Goss - LiveScience
- Cambrian Explosion | PDF File | by Joseph L. Kirschvink & Tomothy V. Raub - California Institute of Technology
- The Scientific Controversy Over the Cambrian Explosion | Center for Science and Culture/Discovery Institute, Seattle
- Phys.org -- Science News, Technology, Physics, Nanotechnology
- Evolution for Teaching | University of Waikato
- Plant and Animal Evolution
"Whatever their origins, animals may have ventured onto land early in the Cambrian. Previously scientists believed that animals did not begin to colonise the land until the Silurian (440 - 410 million years ago). However, the 2002 discovery of the footprints of animals that scuttled about on sand dunes about 530 million years ago has changed this view."
- Oldest Fossil Footprints on Land | Nature
"The oldest fossils of footprints ever found on land hint that animals may have beaten plants out of the primordial seas."
- An Introduction to Evolution - The History of Life on Earth | Thoughtco
- The Quest for Chordate Origins | Excerpt of a Lecture by Jennifer Duffy, University of Alberta
- The Strangest Cambrian Creatures Ever Discovered
- Richard Cowen -- UCD Faculty
- Age of Animals | Universe Review
- The Cambrian Explosion | Fossil Museum
- Dawn of Animal Life | Miller Museum of Geology -- Queen's University, Canada
- Eukaryotic Cells
"Differences between plants and animals seem at first to mark a basic division of life on Earth. Scientists however recognize an even more fundamental division: life based on prokaryotic cells versus life based on eukaryotic cells."
- Biology Reference
- The Cambrian "explosion": Slow-fuse or megatonnage | PDF File | by Simon Conway Morris - PNAS
- Professor Simon Conway Morris - University of Cambridge
- Simon Conway Morris | Wikipedia
- The Burgess Shale and Its Significance | The Burgess Shale Geoscience Foundation
- Fossils from the Burgess Shale of the Stephen Formation | The Virtual Fossil Museum
- The Burgess Shale | UCMP - Berkeley
- The Burgess Shale: Introduction
- The Burgess Shale | Smithsonian Magazine
- How the Burgess Shale Changed Our View of Evolution | Smithsonian Magazine
- Additional Resources on the Burgess Shale | PDF File | The Seattle Times
- Kingdoms of Life
- Kingdom (biology) | Wikipedia
- Wayne's Word | An Online Textbook of Natural History
- Five Kingdom Classification System | Rice Univeristy
- The 5 Kingdoms of Life
- Cazadero Nature Program
- Property Desciptions of the Five Kingdoms
- The Six Kingdoms | Rhode Island College
- Classification of Living things - 6 Kingdom Classification | Edinformatics
- Six Kingdoms of Life | PDF File (74 pages) | Washingtonville Central School District
Three Domains (Superkingdoms) Of Living Organisms
I. Bacteria (19): Most of the Known Prokaryotes
Kingdom: Eubacteria (True Bacteria)
Division (Phylum) Proteobacteria: N-Fixing Bacteria
Division (Phylum) Cyanobacteria: Blue-Green Bacteria
Division (Phylum) Eubacteria: True Gram Posive Bacteria
Division (Phylum) Spirochetes: Spiral Bacteria
Division (Phylum) Chlamydiae: Intracellular Parasites
→ Click image to the right for larger version →
II. Archaea (16): Prokaryotes of Extreme Environments
Kingdom Crenarchaeota: Thermophiles
Kingdom Euryarchaeota: Methanogens & Halophiles
Kingdom Korarchaeota: Some Hot Springs Microbes
III. Eukarya (35): Eukaryotic Cells
Kingdom Protista (Protoctista)
- Diagram of Phylogenetic Tree of Life
- Not plants or animals: A brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista, and Protoctista
PDF File | by Joseph M. Scamardella, May 30, 1999
- Water Documentaries
- The Water Channel
Hi! TheWaterChannel is an open resource with lots of videos related to water.
- Watch Free Online -- "The Great Culling: Our Water" | 93 minutes - Top Documentary Films
The Great Culling of the human race already has begun. Covertly, insidiously, mercilessly, a global depopulation agenda has been launched. It is being done through chemicals added to our drinking water, food, medicines, and the air we breathe - chemicals that have the known effect of reducing fertility and shortening lifespan.
- Watch Free Online -- "Flow: For Love of Water" | 93 minutes - Top Documentary Films
Irena Salina's award-winning documentary investigation into what experts label the most important political and environmental issue of the 21st Century - The World Water Crisis. Salina builds a case against the growing privatization of the world's dwindling fresh water supply with an unflinching focus on politics, pollution, human rights, and the emergence of a domineering world water cartel.
- Global Water Supply Drying Up As Population Grows | ThoughtCo
- "Water on the Table" | Wikipedia
Water on the Table is a Canadian documentary film directed, produced and written by filmmaker Liz Marshall. The film explores Canada's relationship to its freshwater resources and features Canadian activist Maude Barlow in her pursuit to protect water from privatization.
There is a separate page on The Bottled Water Industry.
- Nature & Environment
- UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme
- Books and Films | Infocobuild
Books and Films is a place where you can find films based on books, books related to films, and web documents related to the books or films.
- EEA: European Environment Agency
- EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
- Environmental Defense Fund
- Nature and Environment | Book List - National Geographic
- Earth and Environment | Nature
- A Network Connecting Science with Conservation | NatureServe Homepage
NatureServe is a non-profit conservation organization that provides the scientific information and tools needed to help guide effective conservation action. NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs are the leading source for information about rare and endangered species and threatened ecosystems.
- Documentary 'Synthetic Forests' Covers the Enormous Risks of GE Trees | February 6, 2016 - Dr. Mercola
- The Nature Conservancy
The mission of The Nature Conservancy is to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends, and to collect and manage data about the status and distribution of species and ecosystems of conservation concern.
The Nature Conservancy works to protect the lands and waters on which all life depends in 72 countries around the world.
- European Centre for Nature Conservation
ECNC is an independent European expertise centre for biodiversity and sustainable development.
- WSSCC: Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council
The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is a global, multi-stakeholder membership and partnership organization that works with poor people, their organizations, governments, and small-scale entrepreneurs to improve sanitation and hygiene at scale.
- Earthwatch Institute
Earthwatch is a diverse community of scientists, educators, students, and businesspeople who work together to get the fullest benefit from scientific research.
- The Envirolink Network
The EnviroLink Network is a non-profit organization which has been providing access to thousands of online environmental resources since 1991.
GreenNet is part of the only global computer network specifically designed for environment, peace, human rights and development groups.
- Sierra Club Home Page
- Greenpeace International (USA)
- Information Center for the Environment (ICE)
The Information Center for the Environment is a cooperative effort of environmental scientists at the University of California, Davis and collaborators at over thirty private, state, federal, and international organizations interested in environmental protection.
- Home Conservation Resources
- NWF: National Wildlife Federation
- WWF: World Wildlife Fund
The world's leading conservation organization, WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by more than one million members in the United States and close to five million globally.
Characteristics of the Earth's Terrestrial Biomes
Click above image for webpage with legend
- Fundamentals of Physical Geography (2nd edition) - An Online Textbook - 310 Pages
Created by Michael J. Pidwirny, Department of Geography, Okanagan University College
Physical Geography is a sub-discipline of two much larger fields of study - Geography and Earth Sciences. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena associated with the Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere.
- Progress in Physical Geography Journal
- Progress in Physical Geography | Sources of Nonlinearity and Complexity in Geomorphic Systems | PDF File | Jonathan D. Philips
- Biomes | Great Pictures | Buzzle.com
- Biomes and Ecosystems | Windows to the Universe
- World Biomes - Explore Five of the World's Main Biomes
- KDE Santa Barbara - Kids Do Ecology
- A Guide to the Different Water Biomes | Compliments of Lynn Taylor
- A Graphic Look at the State of the World - Planet Earth: The Executive Summary
- Biomes of the World | Marietta College | Interactive Map
- Biome | Wikipedia
- UCMP: University of California Museum of Paleontology
- UCMP Glossary
- Online Exhibits
- The World's Biomes
Biomes are defined as "the world's major communities, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment"
- Blue Planet Biomes
This site was created and developed by Elisabeth Benders-Hyde. It evolved from a biome project created by Ann and Karl Nelson, two fabulous 6th grade math and science teachers. All the information on this site produced by students at the West Tisbury Elementary School.
- Habitats | Terrestrial - Feshwater - Marine | BBC Nature
- Serengeti | Wikipedia
- Serengeti National Park Official Site
- FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Performing a GOOGLE IMAGE search on Biomes will return many images
related to Physical Geography and biomes.
Each image is associated with a web page, in case you didn't know.
- Coral Reefs
- UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme
- Mother Jones | Smart, Fearless Journalism
- The Wild Classroom: Biology Videos and Podcasts
- Enchanted Learning Home Page
- Coral Reef Facts and Information
Your Online Guide to the World of the Coral Reef
Evolution of Plants | Flowering Plants
- Evolution of Plants
- The Four Major Groups of Plants | Cazadero Nature Program
- Plant Species Numbers | Botanic Gardens Conservation International
- Estimated Number of Animal and Plant Species on Earth | FactMonster
- How Many Different Species of Plant Are There? | Evolving Thoughts
- How Many Species of Plants are there? | Wisegeek
Vascular plants are the keystone that holds up the entire terrestrial ecosystem,
in the same way that cyanobacteria hold up the ecosystem in the oceans.
- The Diversity of Life - Evolution of Plants - Part I | Furman University
- Professor Farabee's Online Biology Book: Table of Contents | Estrella Mountain Community College
- Plants | CK-12.org
- Plant Evolution and Paleobotany - Plant Classification
- Evolution of Plants | Biology Reference
- How the First Plant Came to Be | Scientific American
A genetic analysis reveals the ancient, complex--and symbiotic--roots of photosynthesis in plants.
- The Hidden Forest
Liverworts are considered to be the first plant to make the transition from the sea to land, some 400 million years ago, and share a common ancestry with green algae (Chlorophyta).
- Did Plants Cool the Earth and Spark Explosion of Life? | Hillary Mayell - August 10, 2001 - National Geographic News
- First Land Plants and Fungi Changed Earth's Climate Paving the Way for Explosive Evolution of Land Animals
New Gene Study Suggests | Penn State University
The researchers found that land plants had evolved on Earth by about 700 million years ago and land fungi by about 1,300 million years ago -- much earlier than previous estimates of around 480 million years ago, which were based on the earliest fossils of those organisms.
- The First Plants: colonizing wetlands | Earth History
- The War Between Plants and Animals | by Carl Zimmer - Discover Magazine
- Changing Paleoclimates and Mass Extinctions - A New Model for Climate Change | by Donald L. Blanchard
In this article is proposed a new hypothesis which presents arguments for a long-term cyclicity (ca. 190 Million years) in paleoclimates, and attempts to correlate this cyclicity with major extinction events.
- A timeline for terrestrialization: consequences for the carbon cycle in the Paleozoic | FULL TEXT - | PDF File (1.0M) available
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society - Biological Sciences
- The Evolutionary Origin of Plants | PDF File - McGraw Hill Education
Plants evolved from freshwater green algae and eventually developed cuticles, stomata, conducting systems, and reproductive strategies that adapt them well for life on land.
- How Did Plants Evolve | VIDEO - YouTube
- The Soltis Lab | Florida Museum of Natural History
Scientists and students in the Soltis Lab are currently working with a variety of technologies to investigate mechanisms of speciation, evolutionary relationships and character evolution in flowering and land plants at all taxonomic levels.
- How seeds recognize the seasons | Dec. 16, 2014 - by David Garner | Phys.org
- The Evolution of Plants (pictures) | Antranik.org
Did you know that plants used to live only in water millions of years ago? In fact, they didn't even look like plants… plants ancestors were simply algae! Eventually, they evolved to find their way onto land and make use of a completely new environment.
- Dinosaurs and Plants | Enchanted Learning
iPlants aims to produce an index of all the world's plant species together with, where possible, an image and a preliminary conservation assessment.
- 8.7 million species exist on Earth, study says | August 23, 2011 - The Washington Post
- Species count put at 8.7 million | August 23, 2011 - BBC
- Number of Species Identified on Earth | Current Results
- Flowering Plants - The Big Bloom
Mother Knows Best: How Seeds Recognize the Seasons | December 15, 2014 - University of York
"Scientists at the University of York have played a key role in new research into the way ‘mother' plants
use their memory of the seasons to teach their seeds the most advantageous time to germinate."
- Leaf veins as the driving factor in angiosperm evolution (Brodribb and Feild 2009, Ecology Letters)
- Flowers Modern and Ancient | NOVA - PBS
Here, explore what makes Archaefructus a flowering plant and how it compares to blooming beauties of today.
- Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm | FULL TEXT | PNAS
- Ancient Aquatic Flora Was among the First Flowering Plants | Scientific American
Pyrenees fossils suggest the Montsechia lived up to 130 million years ago and is the earliest known example of a fully submerged aquatic flowering plant.
- New Genetic Study Helps to Solve Darwin's Mystery about the Ancient Evolution of Flowering Plants | Penn State Science
- Genetics Helps Solve How Flowering Plants Evolved |
McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University
New research indicates that two major genetic upheavals produced thousands of new genes that may have helped drive the evolutionary explosion that led to the rich diversity of present-day flowering plants.
- The First Flower | VIDEO - 53 minutes - YouTube
- How Did Flowering Plants Evolve to Dominate Earth? | Science Daily
- How Angiosperms Took Over the World | by Elizabeth Pennisi - Science Magazine
- Angiosperms | UNLV
Flowering plants (Magnoliophyta) are the most successful of all plant groups in terms of their diversity. The group includes more than 250,000 species, and at least 12,000 genera.
- Flowering Plant - Angiosperm | Wikipedia
- ABC model of flower development
ABC model of flower development is a scientific model of the process by which flowering plants produce a pattern of gene expression in meristems that leads to the appearance of an organ oriented towards sexual reproduction, a flower.
- The ABC model of flower development: then and now | PDF File - CalTech
Authors: John L. Bowman, David R. Smyth and Elliot M. Meyerowitz
- Review: Molecular evolution of flower development | PDF File - NYU
Authors: Amy L. Lawton-Rauh, Elena R. Alvarez-Buylla and Michael D. Purugganan
The study of the evolution of genes that control floral morphogenesis permits us to draw inferences on the diversification of developmental systems, the origin of floral organs and the selective forces that drive evolutionary change among these plant reproductive structures.
- How Flower Petals Get Their Shape | April 30, 2013 - Live Science
The shape of a flower's petals and leaves are dictated by a biological map hidden inside the flower's growing bud, a new study finds.
- Angiosperm Floral Morphology | Univeristy of Wisconsin
- The Description of Flowers
- The Carnivorous Plant FAQ - The International Carnivorous Plant Society
→ What is the largest flower in the world? | Library of Congress
→ The World's Smallest Fruit | Wayne's Word
The Science/Biology page has a section on Plants.
For more resources, on the Science Page is a section on Ecosysytems/Biomes.
- Forest News:
- 280-Million-Year-Old Fossil Forest Discovered in... Antarctica | November 15, 2017 - LiveScience
"Antarctica preserves an ecologic history of polar biomes that ranges for about 400 million years, which is basically the entirety of plant evolution," said Erik Gulbranson, a paleoecologist at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
- 'Sapphire rush' threatens rainforests of Madagascar | April 2, 2017 - The Guardian
- Millions of trees cut down to make way for wind farms | Scottish Conservatives
- Millions of trees cut down to make way for wind farms | The Daily Caller
- England may be in deforestation state due to lack of tree planting | The Guardian
- A Nigerian Superhighway Project Threatens a Critical Rainforest and Its People | Earth Island Journal
- Six-Lane Highway Threatens Nigeria's Last Rainforests | Smithsonian Magazine
- Stop Superhighway From Destroying Rainforest Wildlife | Animal Petitions
- Barnaby Joyce plan to log old growth forest will 'drive animals to extinction,' expert says | March 28, 2017 | The Guardian
- Why reignite Tasmania's forest wars - to produce logs no one will buy? | March 24, 2017 | The Guardian
- Tasmanian government rips up 'job-destroying' forestry peace deal | September 2, 2016 | The Guardian
400,000 hectares of protected native forest to be opened to logging in move Liberals say will enhance job creation
- Plans to log Tasmania's world heritage forests dropped after UN criticism | March 20, 2016 | The Guardian
- Brown Mountain -- irreplaceable old-growth forest being logged | The Wilderness Society
- Leuser Watch | Exposing the Destruction of Indonesia's Leuser Ecosystem | Rainforest Action Network
- The Secret Life of Trees: The Astonishing Science of What Trees Feel and How They Communicate | by Maria Popova - BrainPickings
- Basic Facts About Forests | Defenders of Wildlife
- Forest | Wikipedia
- The different types of forests: everything you need to know | ZME Science
- Types of Forests | Geography | 9-14 yrs | Interactive | mocomi.com
- Describe a Forest Ecosystem | oureverydaylife
- Forests of the World | PDF File | Ed Jensen - College of Forestry - OSU
- Understanding Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity | ThoughtCo
- Forest Ecosystems | SpringerOpen
Forest Ecosystems is an open access, peer-reviewed journal publishing scientific communications from any discipline that can provide interesting contributions about the structure and dynamics of "natural" and "domesticated" forest ecosystems, and their services to people.
- Forest Ecosystems -- More Than Just Trees (Book - 480 pages) | Open Access - Edited by Juan A. Blanco and Yueh-Hsin Lo - Publisher: InTech
- Forest Ecosystem | Article - The Free Dictionary
- The Importance of the Forest Ecosystem | Article | April 24, 2017 by Robert Agar | Sciencing
- Biggest Old Growth Forests in the United States | World Atlas
- Forests Australia
- USDA - Forest Service
- Trees for Life | UK
The core purpose and vision of Trees for Life is to restore the Caledonian Forest and all its constituent species of flora and fauna to the Scottish Highlands.
- World Rainforest Movement | NEWS
The World Rainforest Movement (WRM) is an international organization that, through its work on forest and plantation related issues, contributes to achieving the respect of local peoples' rights over their forests and territories.
- Rainforest Alliance
Forests are critical to the survival of every living thing on Earth. Forests clean the air, regulate weather, absorb greenhouse gas emissions, and stabilize the climate--both global and local. Not to mention, forests provide habitat for 80 percent of the world's terrestrial biodiversity and livelihoods for 1.6 billion people.
- CIFOR: Center for International Forestry Research
- Forests and Climate Change
Deforestation accounts for nearly 20% of all greenhouse gas emissions -- more than the world's entire transport sector. At the same time, the removal capacity of forests is decreased as forests are lost.
- Rainforest Action Network
Rainforest Action Network campaigns for the forests, their inhabitants and the natural systems that sustain life by transforming the global marketplace through education, grassroots organizing and non-violent direct action.
- The Most Beautiful Forests in the World | thrillist
- Arbor Day Foundation
- Trees for Life
- Bark | Encyclopedia Britannica
- Bark | Wikipedia
- Moss - Lichen
- IUFRO: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations
The Global Network for Forest Science Cooperation
"IUFRO is a non-profit, non governmental international research organization which was established in Berlin-Eberswalde in 1892. Its objectives are to promote international cooperation in forestry and forest products research."
- The Wild Classroom: Biology Videos and Podcasts
- Environmental news and information | Mongabay
- Deforestation | WWF: World Wide Foundation
- Green, Going, Gone: The Tragic Deforestation of the Chaco
By Christine Macdonald - July 28, 2014 - The Rolling Stone
For more sources on Forests of the World, Global Digest has a section on
- International Rivers
Since 1985, International Rivers has been at the heart of the global struggle to protect rivers and the rights of communities that depend on them. We work with an international network of dam-affected people, grassroots organizations, environmentalists, human rights advocates and others who are committed to stopping destructive river projects and promoting better options.
- Rivers | National Geographic
- Lists of rivers | Wikipedia
This is a comprehensive list of lists of rivers, organized primarily by continent and country.
- Rivers, Major World | Water Encyclopedia
- Principle Rivers of the World | FactMonster.com
The following table lists the principal rivers of the world including the name, source location, outflow, and approximate length.
- Major World Rivers| EnchantedLearning.com
- List of Major Rivers in the World | Altius Directory
- 10 Most Important Rivers in the World | Touropia
- The Colorado River Runs Dry | Smithsonian Magazine
- Announcing America's Most Endangered Rivers of 2017 | American Rivers
- Human Activities Contribute to Drying Up of Major River Headwaters | Worldwatch Institute
- Dried Up: Lakes, Rivers, and Other Bodies of Water Disappearing Fast | April 27, 2014 - The Weather Channel
- World's Major Rivers Drying Up | SciDevNet
Some of the developing world's largest rivers are drying up because of climate change, threatening water supplies in some of the most populous places on Earth, say scientists.
Lake Baikal | Wikipedia
First Picture of Media Presentation
- River Deltas
- Algal Blooms
- Underground Water Reserves
- Difference between Mangroves and Wetlands | Yahoo! Answers
- 6 things you need to know about mangroves (but never thought to ask) | HumanNature - Conservation International Blog
- What is the difference between estuary, swamp, mangrove and a wetland? | Quora FORUM
- Estuaries, Salt Marshes , and Mangroves | MarineBio
- Mangrove | Wikipedia
- What are the differences between bog, swamp, marsh, and fen?
- Major Wetlands of the World | Panda.org
- MBGnet - Missouri Botanical Garden | Biomes of the World - Freshwater Ecosystems - Marine Ecosystems
- Wetland and Aquatic Research Center | USGS
- Copper River Delta - Alaska | The Free Encyclopedia
- Mekong Delta | The Free Encyclopedia
- California Wetlands Portal | SFEI & The Aquatic Science Center
- WHSRN: Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network
- List of Sites
WHSRN brings attention to sites that are vital for the conservation of the hemisphere's longest-distance migrants.
- National Wetlands Inventory | U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
- Wetlands Protection and Restoration | EPA
- HowStuffWorks "How Wetlands Work"
- How Wetlands Work - PICTURE/DIAGRAM
- NWF: National Wildlife Federation
- US Army Corp of Engineers | Headquarters
- S.601: Water Resources Development Act of 2013 | Status and Summary - PDF | Govtracks
- Signed into law June 10, 2014
Big Players Promote Water Privatization | August, 2014 - Truthout
Water Privatization: Coming to a Century Old System Near You? | June, 2014 - Truthout
- Water & Agriculture
- FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
- USDA: United States Department of Agriculture
- CTIC: Conservation Technology Information Center | Purdue University
CTIC champions, promotes and provides information on technologies and
sustainable agricultural systems that conserve and enhance soil, water, air and
wildlife resources and are productive and profitable.
- Improving Access to Water Resources and Agriculture Publications on the World Wide Web
by Joseph R. Makuch and Ellen Hamilton
- Water: Science & Issues | Water Encyclopedia
- World Water Forums
- World Water Council
The World Water Council's mission is to promote awareness, build political commitment and trigger action on critical water issues at all levels, including the highest decision-making level, to facilitate the efficient conservation, protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its dimensions on an environmentally sustainable basis for the benefit of all life on earth.
- The Water Page - Incorporating the African Water Page
The mission of this page is to deliver information beyond just the properties of water. It is a website that covers all topics about water.
- EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
"...to protect human health and to safeguard the environment..."
- National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 | Homeland Security
The NEPA process provides agency decision makers and the public with an understanding of the potential environmental impacts of proposed actions.
- The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe
- Australian Government Department of Environment and Energy
Ozone, Ozone Layer
- UCAR: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
UCAR serves as a hub for research, education, and public outreach for the atmospheric and related Earth sciences community.
- The Atmosphere: Table of Contents | Grade level 5-8
- Layers of Earth's Atmosphere | Windows To The Universe
- Layers of the Atmosphere
- Composition of the Atmosphere | Climate Education for K-12 | NC State University
- How did Earth's atmosphere form? | NASA Scijinks for Kids
- The Atmosphere - Origin and Structure | Eastern Illinois University
- The Origin of Oxygen in Earth's Atmosphere | Scientific American
- Source of Half Earth's Oxygen Gets Little Credit | National Geographic
In the process of photosynthesis, phytoplankton release oxygen into the water. Half of the world's oxygen is produced via phytoplankton photosynthesis. The other half is produced via photosynthesis on land by trees, shrubs, grasses, and other plants.
- How Earth Got Its Oxygen | Live Science
- The Most Important Organism | Ecology Network
- Structural Biochemistry/The Endosymbiotic Theory | Wikibooks
The endosymbiotic theory deals with the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts, two eukaryotic organelles that have bacteria characteristics.
- Evolution of the Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Energy | University of Michigan
- Life and the Evolution of Earth's Atmosphere | PDF File | by Stephen J. Mojzsis - AMNH
- Encyclopedia Britannica
- Ozone, Ozone Layer
- Soil Society of America
- Geology, Rocks and Minerals | Enchanted Learning
- Soil for Schools | SoilNet.com
- K-12 Soil Science Teacher Resources | Soil Biology
Soil is full of life. It is often said that a handful of soil has more living organisms than there are people on planet Earth. Soils are the stomach of the earth, consuming, digesting, and cycling nutrients and organisms.
- What is Soil?
Soils are complex mixtures of minerals, water, air, organic matter, and countless organisms that are the decaying remains of once-living things.
- Soil Mineralogy
- Basic Soil Components | Article
There are five basic components of soil that, when present in the proper amounts, are the backbone of all terrestrial plant ecosystems: Mineral - Water - Organic Matter - Gases - Microorganisms
- Soil Minerals and Plant Nutrition | The Nature Education Knowledge Project
How do chemical reactions involving soil minerals play a crucial role in controlling the availability of essential plant nutrients?
- Facts About Soil: What It is Made of and How It Forms | Bright Hub
- Introduction to Earth Science | Lecture Handouts Index
- The Nature and Properties of Soils, 15th edition | by Raymond R. Weil | PDF download available | Research Gate
- Soil Composition and Formation | Indiana University
- Fundamentals of Soil | basic principles of tropical soils | University of Hawaii
- Soil Composition
The basic components of soil are minerals, organic matter, water and air.
- Building Soils for Better Crops, 3rd Edition | Online Version FREE | SARE: Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education
- A Soil Primer Looking Closer, Digging Deeper | Hippocrates Health Institute
- Soil Health
- How Soil is Destroyed | FAO: Corporate Document Repository
- What types of animals live in the soil? | Soils Matter
- Article: The Living Earth | By Clint Waltz, H. “Skip” Skipper and Bert McCarty, Clemson University
- The secret life of soil | by Peg Herring - Oregon State University
- Soil organism | Encyclopedia Britannica
- Soil Science Courseware | Lectures - NCSU
- Table of Contents | Soil quality considerations in the selection of sites for aquaculture | FAO - United Nations
- Plant Nutrition | Kids World
- Plant Nutrients
Sixteen chemical elements are known to be important to a plant's growth and survival. The sixteen chemical elements are divided into two main groups: non-mineral and mineral.
- Soil biology | Wikipedia
Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological and anthropogenic processes working on soil parent material.
- Plant nutrition
- Plant Nutrients in the Soil | DPI - AU
- Understanding Soil Nutrients | PDF File (25 pages) - University of Vermont
- Climate Change
Impact on Ecosystems || Impact on Wildlife || Impact on Plants
Impact on Plant Insect Interaction || Impact on Agriculture || Impact on Oceans
The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt
- Approaching Day Zero | February 24, 2018 - The Week
- Bering Sea loses half its sea ice over two weeks | February 22, 2018 - PRI
Brettschneider said. "There's this whole cascading set of impacts that affect the entire hemisphere, and in fact the entire globe, when you heat up the Arctic."
- Bering Sea Loses Half of its Sea Ice | Video - News Center Maine
- 16,000 scientists sign dire warning to humanity over health of planet | November 15, 2017 - CNN
- World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice | Published: November 13, 2017 - Journal Bioscience
- U.S. Report Says Humans Cause Climate Change, Contradicting Top Trump Officials | November 3, 2017 - The New York Times
- Trump administration releases report finding 'no convincing alternative explanation' for climate change | November 3, 2017 - The Washington Post
- Massive Government Report Says Climate Is Warming And Humans Are The Cause | November 2, 2017 - NPR
- Trump Picks Oklahoma Congressman to Head NASA | September 4, 2017 - NPR
But when it comes to climate change, he has denied that human activities are responsible for increasing global temperatures.
- Trump's Nominee To Be USDA's Chief Scientist Is Not A Scientist | September 4, 2017 - NPR
- It's a fact: climate change made Hurricane Harvey more deadly | Opinion - August 28, 2017 | Michael Mann - The Guardian
Michael Mann is distinguished professor of atmospheric science at Pennsylvania State University, director of the Penn State Earth System Science Center and author of three books, including The Hockey Stick and The Climate Wars, Dire Predictions, and The Madhouse Effect.
- Can Anyone, Even Walmart, Stem The Heat-Trapping Flood Of Nitrogen On Farms? | August 21, 2017 - NPR
- Human-Caused Warming Likely Led to Recent Streak of Record-Breaking Temperatures, new study finds | August 10, 2017 - AGU: American Geophysical Union
- White House reviewing new report that finds strong link between climate change, human activity | August 7, 2017 - The Washington Post
- Scientists Fear Trump Will Dismiss Blunt Climate Report | August 7, 2017 - The New York Times
- U.S. Global Change Research Program - Third Draft of the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) | The Washington Post
- European heatwave deaths could skyrocket: climate study | August 5, 2017 - Phys.org
"Also this week, researchers wrote in Environmental Research Letters, that rising carbon dioxide levels will dramatically cut the amount of protein in stable crops like rice and wheat in the decades to come. The new paper, said Paul Wilkinson of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, "is yet another reminder of the exposures to extreme weather and possible human impacts that might occur if emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated."
- Loss of Arctic sea ice impacting Atlantic Ocean water circulation system | July 31, 2017 - Science Daily
- Global Warming's Great Hiatus Gets Another Debunking | June 4, 2015 | InsideClimate News
- Trump Will Withdraw U.S. From Paris Climate Agreement | June 1, 2017 - The New York Times
- World reacts to Trump's Paris climate accord withdrawl | June 2, 2017 - Aljazeera
- Paris climate agreement: What you need to know | June 3, 2017 - Aljazeera
- Trump's Speech on Paris Climate Withdrawl, Annotated | June 1, 2017 - NPR
- Scott Pruit hails era of environmental deregulation in speech at coal mine | April 13, 2017 | The Guardian
- New study shows worrisome signs for Greenland ice | April 14, 2017 | The Guardian
- Trump's Budget Slashes Climate Change Funding | March 16, 2017 - NPR
- Warmer Temps Speed Infectious Disease Spread | February 16, 2017 | by Brenda Goodman - WebMD
- Trump Administration Orders EPA to Remove Its Climate Change Web Page | January 25, 2017 | Scientific American
- Donald Trump Just Replaced the White House Climate Website With... This | January 20, 2017 - Mother Jones
- Trump EPA Pick Expresses Doubts about Climate Change, Defends Oil Industry Funding | January 18, 2017 | Scientific American
- Welcome to the National Climate Assessment 2014 | Global Change.gov
The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future.
- Full Report
Global climate is changing. Most of the warming of the past half-century is due to human activities. Some types of extreme weather are increasing, ice is melting on land and sea, and sea level is rising.
- Climate Science Special Report (2017) | Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume I | GlobalChange.gov
- Fourth National Climate Assessment | GlobalChange.gov
- U.S. Global Change Research Program - Third Draft of the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) - 2017 | PDF File (545 pages)
- U.S. Global Change Research Program - Third Draft of the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) | The Washington Post
The Washington Post obtained the third draft of the report, shown here. The
current draft at the White House is the fifth draft, but people familiar with
both versions say there is no substantive difference.
- Schwarzenegger unveils initiative to tweak Trump on climate | 08/04/17 - Politico
- R20 Regions of Climate Action
- R20 Mission
To help sub-national governments around the world to develop and communicate low-carbon and climate resilient economic development projects.
- R20 Regions of Climate Action | Wikipedia
- NCEL: National Caucus of Environmental Legislators
- IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- Climate Change | UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme
- EEA: European Environment Agency
- Climate Change | WHO: World Health Organization
- Climate Change | IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature
- NASA, NOAA Data Show 2016 Warmest Year on Record Globally | NASA
- NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
- Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 | NASA
- Nasa carbon space observatory 'watches Earth breathe' | Oct. 13, 2017 - BBC
- How NASA tracks carbon emissions from space to better understand — and deal with — climate change | Oct. 12, 2017 - Los Angeles Times
- Climate Information | National Center for Environmental Information - NOAA
- Climate Change | USGS
- Classroom Resources | NCSE: National Center for Science Education
- PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- What the Weather Doesn't Tell You | by Marlene Cimons - NexusMedia
- Yale Program on Climate Change Communication
- Climate Change Communication | George Mason University
- Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Journal Articles - Springer
- Content tagged "climate basics" | extension.org
- RealClimate - Climate science from climate scientists | A moderated forum
RealClimate is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. We aim to provide a quick response to developing stories and provide the context sometimes missing in mainstream commentary.
- Climate Change | Article - National Geographic KIDS
- Environment & Society Portal
The Environment & Society Portal is a gateway to open access resources on the human-environment relationship
- A Hotter Planet, A Hungrier World | Article - June 5, 2017 - Mercy Corps
"The impacts of climate change on agriculture, and the implications for food security are alarming," Selvaraju Ramasamy (a climate change officer at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)) says. "In many regions, agriculture and food production are already being adversely affected by increased temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns."
- Is Global Warming Really Slowing Down? | August 28, 2013 - Mother Jones
- Environmental Defense Fund
- Biological Impacts of Climate Change | PDF File (9 pages) - University of Omaha
Authors: John P. McCarty, L. LaReesa Wolfenbarger, James A. Wilson
- Impacts of Global Warming on the Environment | UCAR: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
- Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystems
There is a section above on Forests and another on Ecosystems.
Performing a Google Image search on deforestation will return many images, each connected to a web site.
- Impact of Climate Change on Wildlife
- Impact of Climate Change on Plants
- Impact of Climate Change on Plant Insect Interaction
On the Science/Bio page is a section on Coevolution of Insects and Plants.
- Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture
- Nitrogen's Effect on Climate
- Global Nitrogen: Cycling out of Control | Article - NCBI - NIH
- The Changing Nitrogen Cycle | UCAR Center for Science Education
- Fertilizer use responsible for increase in nitrous oxide in atmosphere | April 2, 2012 - News - UC Berkeley
- New science reveals agriculture's true climate impact | April 10, 2012 - Grist
- The role of nitrogen in climate change and the impacts of nitrogen-climate interactions in the United States | Springer
- Fertilizer produces far more greenhouse gas than expected | June 9, 2014 - ScienceNews
- Fertilizers, a Boon to Agriculture, Pose Growing Threat to U.S. Waterways | July 27, 2017 - The New York Times
- Nitrogen Pollution Likely to Increase Under Climate Change | Scientific American
Human-made nitrogen now affects even isolated waterways, presaging a world where humanity drives the natural cycle of this vital nutrient.
- How Much Fertilizer is Too Much for the Climate? | June 9, 2014 - MSU News
- Fertilizers, Climate Change and Enhancing Agricultural Productivity Sustainably | PDF File - International Fertilizer Industry Association
- Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen | PDF FILE - PNAS
- Agriculture's Role On Global Warming | Arcadia Bioscience
- Nitrous Oxide Increase in the Atmosphere Due to Fertilizer Use in Agriculture | April 30, 2012 - Decoded Science
- Fertilizer | Wikipedia
- Impact of Climate Change on Oceans
- Chapters 12 and 13 of the U.S. Global Change Research Program - Third Draft of the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) discuss key issues connected with sea level rise and ocean changes, including ocean acidification, and their potential effects on the United States.
- Sea Level Rise: What It Is, Why It Matters, and What Can Be Done? | 09/13/17 | by John Hawthorne
- Satellites show warming is accelerating sea level rise | February 12, 2018 - by Seth Borenstein - Seattle Times
Melting ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are speeding up the already fast pace of sea level rise, new satellite research shows.
- Low oxygen levels, coral bleaching getting worse in oceans | January 5, 2018 - by Seth Borenstein - Seattle Times
Global warming is making the world's oceans sicker, depleting them of oxygen and harming delicate coral reefs more often, two studies show.
- Low oxygen levels, coral bleaching getting worse in oceans | January 4, 2018 - aboutcivil.org
- 5 ways climate change is affecting our oceans | EDF: Environmental Defense Fund
- Is Global Warming Really Slowing Down? | August 28, 2013 - Mother Jones
→ Visualization of where excess heat trapped within the climate system ends up. →
- Five Effects of Climate Change on the Ocean | Conservation International
- Climate Change Indicators: Oceans | EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
- Ocean Impacts of Climate Change | Video - National Geographic
How is climate change affecting fragile coral reef ecosystems?
- The Ocean and Climate Change | The Ocean Foundation
- Feature Stories: Climate, Fisheries, and Protected Resources | NOAA Fisheries
- Climate Change and the Global Ocean | Video - NASA
- Global Climate Change
- Video: Oceans of Climate Change
Oceanographer Josh Willis discusses the heat capacity of water, performs an experiment to demonstrate heat capacity using a water balloon and describes how water's ability to store heat affects Earth's climate.
- The Ocean and Climate Change | PDF File | IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature
- Feature: climate change and the world's oceans | United Nations
- ICP-18 Examines Effects of Climate Change on Oceans | May 23, 2017 - IISD
- Oceans and Marine Resources | National Climate Assessment 2014
- How does climate change affect coral reefs? | Teach Ocean Science
- Ocean Acidification Will Make Climate Change Worse | August 26, 2013 - TIME Magazine
- How climate change alters ocean chemistry | World Ocean Review
- How does climate change affect coral reefs? | National Ocean Service - NOAA
- Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms and Ecosystems | Review - ScienceDirect
- Staggering Decline In Deep-Sea Marine Life Expected By 2100 Due To Climate Change | December 31, 2013 - International Science Times
- As Ocean Warms, the Impacts Multiply (Op-Ed) | October 5, 2013 - LiveScience
- Ocean currents affect how climate change impacts movements of species to cooler regions | May 24, 2017 - Phys.org
- Marine problems: climate change | WWF: World Wide Fund for Nature
- Effects of global warming | Wikipedia
Performing a Google Image search on climate change oceans will return a multitude of images,
each associated with a web page.
- Climate.gov | NOAA
NOAA Climate.gov is a source of timely and authoritative scientific data and information about climate.
- GlobalChange.gov | U.S. Global Change Research Program
- Kenneth Kunkel | National Climate Assessment, Climate Extremes Research
As Lead Scientist for technical support of the National Climate Assessment, he led the development of a nine-part NOAA Technical Report series published in 2013, to support the development of the Third National Climate Assessment.
- Climate | World Resources Institute
- A Discussion on Climate Change: Evidence and Causes | The Royal Society and the National Academy of Sciences
The U.S. National Academy of Sciences and The Royal Society released Climate Change: Evidence & Causes, a new publication produced jointly by the two institutions, on February 27, 2014 at an event hosted by Miles O'Brien of the PBS Newshour.
- Climate Change: Evidence, Impacts, and Choices | PDF Download available - The National Academies: Sciences, Engineering, Medicine
The National Research Council is pleased to present this booklet in three parts that (1) summarizes the current state of knowledge about climate change; (2) explains some impacts expected in this century and beyond; and (3) examines how science can help inform choices about managing and reducing the risks posed by climate change.
- Climate Change: evidence and causes | The Royal Society
- NCSE: National Council for Science and the Environment
The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to improving the scientific basis for environmental decisionmaking.
404: The above booklet is no longer available as of January 29, 2017.
Initially, performing a search from the home page for climate change returned a blank sheet blocking the web page,
but now (as of January 31) it returns general information on Education and Research.
- Global Climate Change | NASA
- The Impact of Climate Change on Natural Disasters | Earth Observatory - NASA
- NASA creates incredible video to illustrate the role of CO2 in climate change around the world | Daily Kos
- Global Warming and Extreme Weather - How is Climate Change Impacting Weather-Related Events? | NWF: National Wildlife Federation
- Is Global Warming Linked to Severe Weather? | Union of Concerned Scientists
As Earth warms, powerful storms are becoming the new normal
- Climate Change | The Nature Conservancy
- The impacts of climate change of river flood risk at the global scale | March 4, 2014 - Springer
- Harvey Is What Climate Change Looks Like | August 28, 2017 - Eric Holthaus | Politico Magazine
- What if Global Warming Continues? 6 Ways Climate Change Could Affect Weather Patterns | Newsmax
- Global Warming and Hurricanes | GFDL: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
An Overview of Current Research Results - August 30, 2017
- Global Warming Science | Union of Concerned Scientists
- Climate Change | The World Bank
- Climate Change | EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
- Evidence for global warming | Skeptical Science
- Climate Change Basics - Climate Change 101 | David Suzuki Foundation
- Climate Change | The Canadian Encyclopedia
- Scientific opinion on climate change | Wikipedia
- What is Climate Change? | Department of Ecology - State of Washington
- Stanford Solar Center
- Climate | EcoWatch
- Climate Change | Weather Underground
- Climate Change | April 19, 2011 - Earth Times
- Climate Change - Environment | National Geographic
- Climate Change | Nature
- Climate and Environment | The New York Times
- Climate Change NEWS | The Guardian
- Climate Change: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News | Huffington Post
- International Permafrost Association -- IPA
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- Alaska Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- Scott Polar Research Institute
- Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center | Ohio State University
"Vast methane plumes escaping from the seafloor" discovered in Siberian Arctic Sea |
July 28, 2014 - The Daily Kos
Vast methane 'plumes' seen in Arctic ocean as sea ice retreats | December 13, 2011 - The Independent
Grist - A Beacon in the Smog | Environmental News, Commentary, Advice
Secret funding helped build vast network of climate denial think tanks | Suzanne Goldenberg
Trump's pick for agriculture secretary believes you can pray drought away. | Katie Herzog
Pesticides are blowing into California's mountains, poisoning frogs | John Upton
Accumulation of Pesticides in Pacific Chorus Frogs from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains
USGS Western Ecological Research Center
Performing a GOOGLE IMAGE search on air water pollution could be both disturbing and educational.
More resources on pollution can be found at Environment|Conservation|Endangered Species.
There is a separate page on The Bottled Water Industry.
Global Digest has a section on: Countries | Cultures | MAPS.
Performing a GOOGLE IMAGE search on world map will return maps leading to websites.
Plus, if all you're looking for is an interesting and informative map, this is the direct route.
- National Geographic Society
- Cartography and Geographic Information Society
- Worldpress.org | Map of the World | Regions of the World
→ Click image to the right for larger version ... →
- World Map - Political - Physical | Geology.com
- World History for the Relaxed Historian
- Mathematics of Cartography | by Cynthia Lanius
→ Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013
Dozens of scientific societies, universities, research institutes, and foundations all over the world have banded together to dedicate 2013 as a special year for the Mathematics of Planet Earth.
- The History of Cartography Project
The History of Cartography Project is a research, editorial, and publishing venture drawing international attention to the history of maps and mapping.
- History of Maps and Cartography | by James S. Aber
- Travel the World: Cartography | Wakanow Travel
Thanks to Tracy Haynes
- Getting There by Car, Boat, or Plane: A Guide to Maps
Thanks to Susie Post and her student Alejandro of Colorado Tutors.
- GIS Manual: Elements of Cartographic Style
Harvard University Graduate School of Design
- KML: Keyhole Markup Language | Wikipedia
- Creating KML Files
This tutorial covers the basics of creating KML files. We will be using Google Earth to create KML files containing points, lines, and polygons, the three basic geometries involved in vector-based GIS.
- United Nations Cartographic Section - Department of Field Support
- Stanford Geological Survey Collection
- Government & Geographic Information and Data Services | Northwestern University Library
- Geology Digital Photographs
- Countries of the World
Twenty-nine years of CIA World Fact Books
- Library of Congress Map Collections Home Page
- Alexandria Digital Library
- The Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection
This growing collection contains more than 250,000 maps world-wide from the University of Texas, Austin.
- The Ryhiner Project
The Ryhiner map collection is one of the most valuable and outstanding collections of the world. It consists of more than 16,000 maps, charts, plans and views from the 16th to the 18th century, covering the whole globe.
- NOAA's Online Chart Viewer
- World by Map: Statistics, Maps and Charts
- Charts & Maps | World Resources Institute
- World Climate
Climate data and sunrise/sunset displayed in charts and tables for 149 countries and regions, more than 12,000 specific locations.
- World Aviation Maps and Charts
These charts are jointly produced by the military of USA, Canada, Australia and Britian.
- The WWW Virtual Library: International Affairs Resources: Maps and Earth Images
- U.S. Census Data
Doing a search on "maps" returned about 154,000 items.
- Geography | Awesome Library
Geography, climate, countries, Maps, Flags, Population
- Quick Maps of the World
Flags, Maps Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources
- World Map | Mapsofworld
- BlatantWorld - stuff we should know about
- Webwombat - Class Mate - World Flags
- The Flag of the United States
- The Map Guide
Map links to World, Country and more maps
- MapQuest - Driving Directions
- National Digital Map Library
The National Digital Map Library is a collection of digital maps created at the Geospatial and Statistical Center using public domain data sets in 2001.
- Geography Departments Worldwide
Welcome to the searchable database of Geography Departments around the world! As of May 1st, 2012 there are links to 1187 Departments in 97 Countries of which 938 have already signed the "Add Department Form" and thus can be searched by Country, Keyword and Researchfields.
- DeLorme: High-quality Digital and Paper Maps
- Maps and Pictures from Australia
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution WWW Server
Performing a SEARCH on the keyword "charts" will return a list of many interesting sites.
- DICTIONARY of Abbreviations and Acronyms in Geographic Information Systems [GIS]
- Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies
- GIS Journals -- GIS Resource -- Research and Subject Guides at Stony Brook University
- CU-Boulder Geography | Deep GIScience
- Road Trip Geography for Kids
Thanks to Alyssa Britton and her students at Jean Massieu Academy in Grand Prairie, Texas.
- A Kid's Guide to Geography
Thanks to Sandy Fiato and her students.
- Rader's Geography4Kids.com
- The Geography Site: coursework, teaching, lessons, information
- Ptolemey's Geography
A look at ancient Greek geography from the Vatican server.
- Useful Websites for Geography | University of Reading
- ipl2: Information You Can Trust: Geography
Over 500 returns of a search on "geography."
- National Geospatial Program
The National Geospatial Program provides leadership for USGS geospatial coordination, production and service activities.
- National Atlas
Announcement - The National Atlas Will Be Removed from Service September 30, 2014
- Map Layers
In the National Atlas Map Maker, you can assemble, view, and print your own maps. You can choose from hundreds of layers of geographic information to make maps. Each map layer can be displayed individually or mixed with others as you tailor a map to your needs.
- Wall Maps
The National Atlas prints authoritative and attractive paper maps covering diverse topics. These are suitable for use at home, in the office, or in the classroom.
- The National Map
- Visualization of Remote Sensing Data
- "Welcome to UM - WeatherNet, the Internet's premier source of weather information since 1994."
- Find Local Weather
- The Weather Channel
- World Weather Links - Forecast Charts
- World Weather Online
- NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
- David Baron's General Weather Links
- Glossary of Meteorological Terms
- Meteorology | Wikipedia
- Survey of Meteorology Class Notes | Lyndon State College
- Central Pacific Hurricane Center
- List of Pacific Hurricanes | Wikipedia
- NOVA | Once and Future Tsunamis
- Nature Wages War: Tornados, Hurricanes, and Tsunamis
- Edward N. Lorentz
- Chaos & Fractals
- World Meteorological Organization |
A United Nations Specialized Agency
- American Meteorological Society
- Meteorology: University Weather Servers
Formerly: The World-Wide Web Virtual Library Meteorology Page
- NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research
- Overview of the Scholarly Societies Project
- NASA's Hurricane Resource Page
- How Hurricanes Work
- Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids
Website designed by meteorologist Crystal Wicker especially for kids.
- Weatherbase | Browse 41,997 Cities Worldwide
- Introduction to Windows to the Universe
- Understanding the Weather - Terminology | Weatherzone
- Definitions of Precipitation | USA Today
- Difference Between Rain and Showers | DifferenceBetween.Net
- Juneau Public Questionaire: Results, Analayses, and Conclusions
- Welcome to Almanac.com | The Old Farmer's Almanac
- NCDC: National Climatic Data Center
- Center for Climatic Research
- The Daily
- Department of Atmospheric Sciences -- University of Illinois
- New Jersey OnLine Weather
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